UKAEA Journals

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The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) is typically the only wave in the electron cyclotron (EC) range that can be applied in spherical tokamaks for heating and current drive (H&CD). Spherical tokamaks (STs), which feature relatively high neutron flux and good economy, operate generally in high-ß regimes, in which the usual EC O- and X- modes are cut-o…


The effect of the direction of the detected beam on the intensity of ECE is studied. It is found that the combined effects of the strong dependence of the conversion efficiencey of O mode at the plasma resonance on the direction of the incident wave and the partial screening of the beam waist by the MAST vessel wall, can be responsible for the weak…