Particle beams have been developed at the Culham Laboratory for many years, mainly for application to the production of high-temperature plasmas. These developments included demonstration offundamental plasma physics such as particle trapping, heating, and current drive coupled to continuous advances in the physics and technology of ion beam production and transport This work reached its zenith in production of multimegawatt high-proton fraction sources for the neutral beam injectors for JET. A new initiative is now coming for the development of negative ion based injectors. This wide ranging base of physics and technology provided a springboard for exploitation ofbeams in areas other than fusion. The last few years have seen increasing R and D at Culham in areas such as space, defense, surface treatment, and implantation. The applications have ranged from beams of H+ or H- to Xe+, from currents of less than 1 rnA to currents of amperes and from energies of 50 e V to energies of hundreds of kilovolts. This paper describes some examples of these activities and relates them to the physics and technology base . Future areas of interest are also discussed.