Several improvements to the MAST plant and diagnostics have facilitated new studies advancing the physics basis for ITER and DEMO, as well as for future spherical tokamaks. Using the increased heating capabilities PNBI ≤ 3.8 MWH-mode at Ip = 1.2 MA was accessed showing that the energy confinement on MAST scales more weakly with Ip and more strongly with Bt than in the ITER IPB98(y,2) scaling. Measurements of the fuel retention of shallow pellets extrapolate to an ITER particle throughput of 70% of its original designed total throughput capacity. The anomalous momentum diffusion, χφ, is linked to the ion diffusion, χi, with a Prandtl number close to Pφ ≈ χφ/χi ≈ 1, although χi approaches neoclassical values. New high spatial resolution measurements of the edge radial electric field, Er, show that the position of steepest gradients in electron pressure and Er (i.e. shearing rate) are coincident, but their magnitudes are not linked.