Ion-gyroradius-scale microinstabilities typically have a frequency comparable to the ion transit frequency. Hence, it is conventionally assumed that passing electrons respond adiabatically in ion-gyroradius-scale modes, due to the small electron-to-ion mass ratio and the large electron transit frequency. However, in gyrokinetic simulations of ion-gyroradius-scale modes, the nonadiabatic response of passing electrons can drive the mode, and generate fluctuations with narrow radial layers, which may have consequences for turbulent transport in a variety of circumstances. In flux tube simulations, in the ballooning representation, these instabilities reveal themselves as modes with extended tails. The small electron-to-ion mass ratio limit of linear gyrokinetics for electrostatic instabilities is presented, including the nonadiabatic response of passing electrons and associated narrow radial layers. This theory reveals the existence of ion-gyroradius-scale modes driven solely by the nonadiabatic passing electron response, and recovers the usual ion-gyroradius-scale modes driven by the response of ions and trapped electrons, where the nonadiabatic response of passing electrons is small. The collisionless and collisional limits of the theory are considered, demonstrating interesting parallels to neoclassical transport theory. The predictions for mass-ratio scaling are tested and verified numerically for a range of collision frequencies. Insights from the small electron-to-ion mass ratio theory may lead to a computationally efficient treatment of extended modes.