#### A. K. Ram J. Decker A. Bers R. A. Cairns C. N. Lashmoredavies

The high-ß magnetically confined plasmas in spherical tori (ST), like NSTX and MAST, provide a unique opportunity for a wide variety of applications of electron Bernstein waves (EBW). These applications range from heating of the ST plasma to modifying and controlling its current profile. Using the fully relativistic dielectric tensor for a Maxwell…

Published#### R. A. Cairns C. N. Lashmore-Davies

An approximation to the relativistic broadening of an electron cyclotron resonance is obtained by including only the effect of the momentum parallel to the magnetic field. This approximation is then applied to the calculation of the absorption of the electromagnetic X-mode and compared to the full relativistic analysis with which it agrees very wel…

Published#### R. A. Cairns C. N. Lashmore-Davies

Electron Bernstein waves are analyzed as possible candidates for heating spherical tokamaks. An inhomogeneous plane slab model of the plasma with a sheared magnetic field is used to calculate the linear conversion of the ordinary mode (O-mode) to the extraordinary mode (X-mode). A formula for the fraction of the incident O-mode energy which is conv…

Published#### D. C. Mcdonald R. A. Cairns C. N. Lashmore-Davies G. Le Clair

Detailed ray tracing, of wave propagation in a plasma near electron cyclotron resonances, suggests that refraction can lead to reduced absorption, in some cases. By studying the full wave equation for the ordinary wave near the fundamental, in a slab model, it is shown that such refraction does indeed reduce absorption, for this particular case, bu…

Published#### C. N. Lashmore-Davies V. Fuchs R. A. Cairns

A theory of fast wave absorption in a high-beta plasma is given. A reduced, second-order, ordinary differential equation has been used which includes all collisionless electron dissipation mechanisms and ion cyclotron damping over many harmonics. This is relevant to the high-harmonic fast wave heating scheme proposed by Ono [Phys. Plasmas 2, 4075 (…

Published#### C. N. Lashmore-Davies A. Thyagaraja R. A. Cairns

A cylindrical model of a tokamak is used to describe the nonlinear coupling between Alfven waves and sound waves. The model is applied to the case of a toroidal Alfven eigenmode (TAE) driven unstable by fusion alpha particles to explore its relevance to the nonlinear saturation of such modes, which can produce a loss of alpha particles in a burning…

Published#### D. C. Mcdonald R. A. Cairns C. N. Lashmore-Davies

Electron cyclotron absorption (ECA) of electromagnetic radiation at the second harmonic is of interest in Tokamak physics both for plasma heating and current drive, as well as for some diagnostics. Modelling of the linear wave propagation for such problems is usually done by WKB ray tracing, despite the fact that the WKB theory is not strictly vali…

Published#### R. A. Cairns V. Fuchs C. N. Lashmore-Davies

We apply a fast wave approximation to the propagation of the fast wave across the magnetic field. This approximation involves replacing the hot plasma conductivity tensor by an approximation which reduces the problem to a second order differential equation. Such a procedure is particularly useful in the high harmonic regime, where many terms with t…

Published#### R. A. Cairns C. N. Lashmoredavies D. C. Mcdonald M. Taylor

In a fusion plasma ion cyclotron heating may be applied to a plasma in a regime where there is a population of ions whose Larmor radius is not small compared to the perpendicular wavelength. In this case the equations describing the propagation and absorption of the wave are integro-differential, describing the non-local response of the plasma to t…

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