#### T. Adkins A. A. Schekochihin P. G. Ivanov C. M. Roach

Electromagnetic instabilities and turbulence driven by the electron-temperature gradient are considered in a local slab model of a tokamak-like plasma, with constant equilibrium gradients (including magnetic drifts but no magnetic shear). The model describes perturbations at scales both larger and smaller than the electron inertial scale de…

Preprint Published#### P G Ivanov A A Schekochihin W Dorland A R Field F I Parra

The saturated state of turbulence driven by the ion-temperature-gradient instability is investigated using a two-dimensional long-wavelength fluid model that describes the perturbed electrostatic potential and perturbed ion temperature in a magnetic field with constant curvature (a Z-pinch) and an equilibrium temperature gradient. Numerical simulat…

Preprint Published#### G. J. Colyer A. A. Schekochihin F. I. Parra C. M. Roach M. A. Barnes Y. C. Ghim W. Dorland

In electrostatic simulations of MAST plasma at electron-gyroradius scales, using the local flux-tube gyrokinetic code GS2 with adiabatic ions, we find that the longtime saturated electron heat flux (the level most relevant to energy transport) decreases as the electron collisionality decreases. At early simulation times, the heat flux quasisatura…

Preprint Published#### A.R. Field D. Dunai Y-C Ghim P. Hill B. Mcmillan C.M. Roach S. Saarelma A.A. Schekochihin S. Zoletnik The Mast Team

Observations of ion-scale density turbulence of relative amplitude are available on the Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) using a 2D (8 radial × 4 poloidal channel) imaging Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostic. Spatial and temporal characteristics of this turbulence, i.e., amplitudes, correlation times, radial and perpendicular correlation …

Published#### N. F. Loureiro A. A. Schekochihin A. Zocco

Magnetic reconnection in strongly magnetized (low-beta), weakly collisional plasmas is investigated by using a novel fluid-kinetic model [Zocco and Schekochihin, Phys. Plasmas 18, 102309 (2011)] which retains nonisothermal electron kinetics. It is shown that electron heating via Landau damping (linear phase mixing) is the dominant dissipation mecha…

Published#### Y.-C. Ghim A. A. Schekochihin A. R. Field I. G. Abel M. Barnes G. Colyer S. C. Cowley F. I. Parra D. Dunai S. Zoletnik The Mast Team

Beam emission spectroscopy (BES) measurements of ion-scale density fluctuations in the MAST tokamak are used to show that the turbulence correlation time, the drift time associated with iontemperature or density gradients, the particle (ion) streaming time along the magnetic field, and the magnetic drift time are consistently comparable, suggesting…

Published#### E. G. Highcock A. A. Schekochihin S. C. Cowley M. Barnes F. I. Parra C. M. Roach W. Dorland

Sheared toroidal flows can cause bifurcations to zero-turbulent-transport states in tokamak plasmas. The maximum temperature gradients that can be reached are limited by subcritical turbulence driven by the parallel velocity gradient. Here it is shown that magnetic field pitch/inverse aspect ratio is a critical control parameter for sheared tokamak…

Published#### F. I. Parra M. F. F. Nave A. A. Schekochihin C. Giroud J. S. De Grassie J. H. F. Severo P. De Vries K.-D. Zastrow

Using theoretical arguments, a simple scaling law for the size of the intrinsic rotation observed in tokamaks in the absence of a momentum injection is found: The velocity generated in the core of a tokamak must be proportional to the ion temperature difference in the core divided by the plasma current, independent of the size of the device. The co…

Published#### M. Barnes F. I. Parra A. A. Schekochihin

Scaling laws for ion temperature gradient driven turbulence in magnetized toroidal plasmas are derived and compared with direct numerical simulations. Predicted dependences of turbulence fluctuation amplitudes, spatial scales, and resulting heat fluxes on temperature gradient and magnetic field line pitch are found to agree with numerical results i…

Published#### M. Barnes F.I. Parra E.G. Highcock A.A. Schekochihin S.C. Cowley C.M. Roach

Nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations are conducted to investigate turbulent transport in tokamak plasmas with rotational shear. At sufficiently large flow shears, linear instabilities are suppressed, but transiently growing modes drive subcritical turbulence whose amplitude increases with flow shear. This leads to a local minimum in the heat flux, ind…

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